Janin-Thivos M. (2007) Foreign merchants conversion in 16th and 17th-century Portugal

July 27, 2008

Janin-Thivos Michelle (2007) “Entre développement des affaires et convictions personnelles: la conversion ds marchands étrangers devant l’Inquisition portugaise a l’époque moderne”, in Burkardt Albreht ed., Commerce , voyage et expérience religieuse XVIe-XVIIIe siecles, Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 275-286.


Merchant traveled less often with their merchandize during the 17th and 18th century then before. But their business still required them to move regularly within a network of partners and parents. Despite the rise of an intolerant catholicism in Portugal in the second half of the 17th, foreign merchants kept moving in the kingdom, chiefly looking for colonial products. In 1647, the English had obtained the right to practice freely their religion in Portugal (275). Read the rest of this entry »

Sousa F. (2005) Silk industry in northeastern Portugal (15th-19th century)

July 20, 2008

De Sousa Fernando (2005) “The silk industry in Trás-os-Montes during the Ancient Regime”, e-Journal of Portuguese History, 3/2, 14 p.

This article is available on line.


Trás-os-Montes is located in the North East of Portugal, it is a land-locked region close to the Spanish border. The silk industry started there in the 15th century but silkworms had been reared in the region since the 1200s. Although a significant part of the activity was located in Bragança, lesser towns and the countryside also enjoyed a share of it (Vinhais, Freixo de Espadaà Cinta, Chacim) (1). Read the rest of this entry »

Arnoux M. 2001 European metallurgy technical and managerial innovation (13th-16th century)

July 6, 2008

Arnoux Mathieu (2001) “Innovation technique et genèse de l’entreprise. Quelques réflexions à partir de l’exemple de la métallurgie européenne (XIIIe-XVIe siècles)”, Histoire, économie & société, 20/4, 447-454.

This article is available online!


Metallurgy and the related industries have been significant players in the economic development of 12th- and 13th-century Europe. All over the period metal consumption increased significantly. The producers met the demand by finding ways of increasing their productivity. Hydraulic energy was used to hammer larger pieces of iron and steel and then to ventilate furnaces (448). The new process was further developed in Belgium (the so-called Walloon process) and spread all over Europe in 1450-1550. Read the rest of this entry »