Arnoux Mathieu (2001) “Innovation technique et genèse de l’entreprise. Quelques réflexions à partir de l’exemple de la métallurgie européenne (XIIIe-XVIe siècles)”, Histoire, économie & société, 20/4, 447-454.
Metallurgy and the related industries have been significant players in the economic development of 12th- and 13th-century Europe. All over the period metal consumption increased significantly. The producers met the demand by finding ways of increasing their productivity. Hydraulic energy was used to hammer larger pieces of iron and steel and then to ventilate furnaces (448). The new process was further developed in Belgium (the so-called Walloon process) and spread all over Europe in 1450-1550. Read the rest of this entry »